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Weatherhead, P. J.  1984.  Fecal sac removal by tree swallows: The cost of cleanliness. Condor 86:187-191.

Weatherhead, P. J.  1988.  Adaptive disposal of fecal sacs. Condor 90:518-519.

Weatherhead, P. J., S. G. Sealy, and R. M. R. Barclay.  1985.  Risks of clustering in thermally-stressed swallows.
Condor 87:443-444.

Weatherhead, P. J., and S. M. Yezerinac.  1998.  Breeding synchrony and extra-pair mating in birds. Behav. Ecol.
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Wheelwright, N. T., J. Leary, and C. Fitzgerald.  1991.  The costs of reproduction in tree swallows. Can J. Zool.
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Wheelwright, N. T., and C. B. Schultz.  1994.  Age and reproduction in savannah sparrows and tree swallows. J. Anim.
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94:778-781.

Whittingham, L. A., and P. O. Dunn.  2000.  Offspring sex ratios in tree swallows: females in better condition produce
more sons.  Mol. Ecol. 9:1123-1129.

Whittingham, L. A., and P. O. Dunn.  2001.  Females' responses to intraspecific brood parasitism in the tree swallow.
Condor 103:166-170.

Whittingham, L. A., and P. O. Dunn.  2001.  Survival of extrapair and within-pair young in tree swallows. Behav. Ecol.
12:496-500.

Whittingham, L. A., and P. O. Dunn.  2005.  Effects of extra-pair and within-pair reproductive success on the opportunity
for selection in birds. Behav. Ecol. 16:138-144.

Whittingham, L. A., and P. O. Dunn.  2010.  Fitness benefits of polyandry for experienced females. Molecular Ecol.
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Whittingham, L. A., and P. O. Dunn.  2014.  Extra-pair mating and sexual selection on male traits across populations.  
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Whittingham, L. A., and P. O. Dunn.  2016.  Experimental evidence that brighter males sire more extra-pair young in tree
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Whittingham, L. A., P. O. Dunn, and E. D. Clotfelter.  2003.  Parental allotment of food to nestling tree swallows: the
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Whittingham, L. A., P. O. Dunn, and J. T. Lifjeld.  2007.  Egg mass influences quality in tree swallows, but there is no
differential allocation in relation to laying order or sex. Condor 109:585-594.

Whittingham, L. A., P. O. Dunn, and R. J. Robertson.  1993.  Confidence of paternity and male parental care: An
experimental study in tree swallows. Anim. Behav. 47:139-147.

Whittingham, L. A., P. O. Dunn, and R. J. Robertson.  1994.  Do female tree swallows guard their mates by copulating
frequently?  Anim. Behav. 47:994-997.

Whittingham, L. A., P. O. Dunn, and J. K. Nooker.  2005.  Maternal influences on brood sex ratios: an experimental study
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Whittingham, L. A., P. O. Dunn, and R. J. Robertson.  1995.  Do males exchange feathers for copulations in tree
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Whittingham, L. A., P. O. Dunn, and R. J. Robertson.  1995.  Testing the female mate-guarding hypothesis: a reply.
Anim. Behav. 50:277-279.

Whittingham, L. A., P. O. Dunn, and M. K. Stapleton.  2006.  Repeatability of extra-pair mating in tree swallows.
Molecular Ecol. 15:841-849.

Whittingham, L. A., and H. Schwabl.  2002.  Maternal testosterone in tree swallow eggs varies with female aggression.
Anim. Behav. 63:63-67.

Whittingham, L. A., B. Slikas, D. W. Winkler, and F. H. Sheldon.  2002.  Phylogeny of the tree swallow genus,
Tachycineta (Aves: Hrundinidae), by bayesian analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences. Mol. Phylogen. and Ecol.
22:430-441.

Whittingham, L. A., P. D. Taylor, and R. J. Robertson.  1992.  Confidence of paternity and male parental care. Am. Nat.   
139:1115-1125.

Wiebe, K. L.  2016.  Interspecific competition for nests: Prior ownership trumps resource holding potential for Mountain
Bluebird competing with Tree Swallow. Auk 133:512-519.

Wiggins, D. A.  1989.  Heritability of body size in cross-fostered tree swallow broods. Evolution 43:1808-1811.

Wiggins, D. A.  1990.  Food availability, growth, and heritability of body size in nestling tree swallows (
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Wiggins, D. A.  1990.  Clutch size, offspring quality, and female survival in tree swallows - an experiment. Condor
92:534-537.

Wiggins, D. A.  1990.  Sources of variation in egg mass of tree swallows
Tachycineta bicolor. Ornis Scandinavica
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Wiggins, D. A.  1991.  Natural selection on body size and laying date in the tree swallow. Evolution 45:1169-1174.

Wiggins, D. A., and T. Part.  1995.  Sexual dimorphism and breeding success in tree swallows and collared flycatchers.
Condor 97:267-271.

Williams, J. B.  1988.  Field metabolism of tree swallows during the breeding season. Auk 105:706-714.

Willner, G. R., J. E. Gates, and W. J. Devlin.  1983.  Nest box use by cavity-nesting birds. Am. Midl. Nat 109:194-201.

Wilson, A. J., and D. H. Nussey.  2009.  What is individual quality?  An evolutionary perspective. Trends in Ecology and
Evolution 25:207-214.

Windsor, R. L., J. L. Fegely, and D. R. Ardia.  2013.  The effects of nest size and insulation on thermal properties of tree
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Winkler, D. W.  1991.  Parental investment decision rules in tree swallows: parental defense, abandonment, and the
so-called concord fallacy. Behav. Ecol. 2:133-142.

Winkler, D. W.  1992.  Causes and consequences of variation in parental defense behavior by tree swallows. Condor
94:502-520.

Winkler, D. W.  1993.  Use and importance of feathers as nest lining in tree swallows (
Tachycineta bicolor). Auk
110:29-36.

Winkler, D. W.  2000.  The phylogenetic approach to avian life histories: an important complement to within-population
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Winkler, D. W.  2006.  Roosts and migrations of swallows. Hornero 21:85-97.

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(
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Winkler, D. W., and P. E. Allen.  1996.  The seasonal decline in tree swallow clutch size: Physiological constraint or
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Winkler, D. W., P. O. Dunn, and C. E. McCulloch.  2002.  Predicting the effects of climate change on avian life-history
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Winkler, D. W., M. K. Luo, and E. Rakhimberdiev.  2013.  Temperature effects on food supply and chick mortality in tree
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Winkler, D. W., K. M. Ringelman, P. O. Dunn, L. Whittingham, D. J. T. Hussell, R. G. Clark, R. D. Dawson, L. S. Johnson,
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Winkler, D. W., P. H. Wrege, P. E. Allen, T. L. Kast, P. Senesac, M. F. Wasson, and P. J. Sullivan.  2005.  The natal
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Wischhoff, U., F. Marques-Santos, D. R. Ardia, and J. J. Roper.  2015.  White-rumped swallows prospect while they are
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Yunick, R. P.  1971.  A study of a tree swallow colony over water. Kingbird 21:47-57.

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Zach, R., and K. R. Mayoh.  1986.  Gamma irradiation of tree swallow embryos and subsequent growth and survival.
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Ziebarth, P.  2011.  House sparrow wars: pairing boxes.  Bluebird 22-23.






                                                                                     
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TREE SWALLOW RESEARCH BIBLIOGRAPHY

Last Updated 09/01/2017.  Recent additions noted by authors in red.  Previously updated 08/29/2016.
Our intention is to update this bibliography once or twice a year.

Most articles listed feature Tree Swallows as the primary study species.  Some utilize Tree Swallows
as a comparison species or as one of a group of species being investigated.  A few more general
articles are included for their pertinence to issues in Tree Swallow research.  A number of older,
more anecdotal studies are also included, primarily ones whose authors helped pioneer the use of
multi-box projects and foresaw their value in ornithological research.
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